Biological Models Research and Technology
Biological Models Research and Technology
Research Article

Assessment of general activity and anxiety-like behavior in mice following tramadol and meloxicam administration for managing immediate post-operative pain  

Ana Tada Fonseca Brasil Antiorio, Jilma Alemán-Laporte, Mariana de Souza Aranha Garcia-Gomes, Dennis Albert Zanatto, Pedro Kenzo Yamamoto, Danilo Wadt, Luciana Cintra, Maria Martha Bernardi, Claudia Madalena Cabrera Mori

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After analgesic administration, we evaluated general activity in the Open-Field and anxiety-like behavior in
the Elevated Plus Maze of vasectomized mice. We divided C57BL/6J male mice into eight groups: saline, three
non-operated control groups treated with 10 mg/kg meloxicam, 20 mg/kg tramadol, or both intraperitoneally,
and four vasectomized mice groups treated with the same analgesic protocol as the control groups. One group
of vasectomized mice received both treatments and an additional 10 mg/kg lidocaine at the incision site. We
conducted the vasectomy via scrotal approach under isoflurane inhalation anesthesia and performed behavioral
tests after full anesthesia recovery. Mice treated with meloxicam demonstrated low ambulation, spontaneous
activity, and rearing frequency. Mice treated with tramadol showed spontaneous behavior compared with
the saline control. Due to behavior changes demonstrated by meloxicam controls, we were unable to identify
whether meloxicam provided adequate analgesia. Vasectomized mice treated with tramadol showed general
activity behavior similar to their control but displayed significantly less rearing, suggesting that they were under
potential signs of pain or discomfort. In conclusion, the Open Field test and the Elevated Plus Maze can usefully
pre-evaluate analgesic protocols to identify possible interference caused by adverse drug effects. For future
directions, an appropriate regimen of meloxicam and tramadol for enhancing mice welfare post-vasectomy
should be better investigated.


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animal welfare, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, multimodal treatments, adverse effects.  

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627c00b1a953951b034eb8b4 bmrt Articles
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